États-Unis d'Amérique - Autorité centrale (art. 2) et informations pratiques
U.S. Department of Justice
|Adresse :||Office of International Judicial Assistance
U.S. Department of Justice
1100 L Street, NW, Room 8102
Washington, D.C. 20005
United States of America
|Téléphone :||+1 (202) 514-6700|
|Site web :||https://www.justice.gov/civil/office-international-judicial-assistance-0|
|Personne à contacter :||Ms. Ada Bosque, Acting Director
Ms. Krysta Stanford, Trial Attorney
|Langues de communication :||anglais|
|Lois de blocage :||Non, il n'y a pas de loi de blocage en vigueur.|
|Transmission des Commissions rogatoires :||Letters of Request are sent directly from a judicial authority in the United States to the Central Authority of the requested State. The U.S. Central Authority does not process, review, or transmit Letters of Request for the collection of evidence in a foreign State in private U.S. litigation matters, therefore outgoing Letters of Request are not transmitted through the U.S. Central Authority.|
|Autorité chargée d’informer l’autorité requérante de l’heure et du lieu d’exécution de la commission rogatoire
(art. 7) :
|Generally, witness testimony is obtained through written interrogatories and therefore the U.S. Central Authority will be unable to notify the requesting authority of the date and time of the hearing as there will not be such a date. In the United States, evidence requested pursuant to the Convention is typically obtained by attorneys and formal hearings before a judge are not conducted to obtain testimony from witnesses.
If the requesting authority requires a deposition, the Letter of Request must: (1) clearly state that an official transcript of the testimony is needed; (2) provide assurances that the cost of the court reporter will be paid; and (3) provide contact information (preferably email) for the party responsible for paying the court reporter. In those situations, when asked by the requesting authority, the Central Authority can notify the requesting authority, parties to the proceedings, or their representatives of the time and place of the execution of the Letter of Request.
|La présence des magistrats à l’exécution d’une commission rogatoire
(art. 8) :
|Déclaration d'applicabilité. Voir les déclarations et l'autorité compétente.|
|Dispenses et interdictions établies par la loi d’autres États que l’État requérant et l’État requis
(art. 11) :
|Pas de déclaration d'applicabilité.|
|Exigences de traduction
(art. 4(2) et 33) :
The United States accepts Letters of Request written in or translated into English. The United States has agreed to accept Letters of Request in or translated into French. The United States wishes to point out that owing to the necessity of translating such documents into English, it will take the Central Authority longer to comply with a Letter of Request in or translated into French than with a similar request received in English.
The United States declares that it will also accept Letters of Request in Spanish for execution in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, however, the United States wishes to point out that owing to the necessity of translating such documents into English it will take the Central Authority longer to comply with a Letter of Request in or translated into Spanish than with a similar request received in English.
The U.S. Central Authority may not be able to compel evidence for Letters of Request submitted in a language other than English, so such evidence may be obtained only on a voluntary basis.
|Frais d’exécution d’une commission rogatoire
(art. 14(2)(3) et 26) :
|Generally, the United States is able to execute requests without reimbursement. However, the United States may seek reimbursement for any third-party costs associated with obtaining the requested evidence. Most commonly, this involves fees for service of a subpoena, court reporter fees for a deposition, or laboratory fees for collection of a DNA sample.
Where permissible and possible, our office will provide information on where to make the payment, so the foreign court or parties to the litigation can make the payment directly. We will endeavor to notify the foreign court of any expenses we anticipate will need to be paid ahead of time.
|Délai d’exécution :||On average, approximately 2-3 months for evidence obtained on a voluntary basis. For evidence that needs to be compelled, the average time for execution is 3-6 months.|
|Pre-trial discovery of documents
art. 23 :
|Letter of Request may be executed (no declaration).|
|Information sur les règles nationales sur l’obtention des preuves :||
Please review our OIJA Evidence and Service Guidance available online at https://www.justice.gov/civil/evidence-requests (available in English, Spanish, Turkish, German, Portuguese, Polish, Arabic, and Hebrew).
The Code of Federal Regulations names the Civil Division of the U.S. Department of Justice as the U.S. Central Authority for the Hague Evidence Convention. 28 C.F.R. § 0.49.
Under U.S. law, evidence may be obtained without submission of a formal request pursuant to the Hague Evidence Convention. 28 U.S.C. § 1782. It is permissible for a voluntary witness located in the United States to directly provide evidence to a foreign court. See 28 U.S.C. § 1782(b). Additionally, U.S. procedure allows an interested party to file a 28 U.S.C. § 1782(a) motion to request that a U.S. district court issue an order to compel a witness to provide evidence in aid of a foreign proceeding. See 28 U.S.C. § 1782(a). Neither of these options involve the U.S. Central Authority.
Interrogation des témoins en vertu du chapitre I
|La commission rogatoire requiert-elle d’inclure les questions exactes posées durant l’interrogation des témoins ou seulement une liste de sujets devant être abordés ?||
The U.S. Central Authority strongly encourages the requesting authority to include a specific list of questions to ensure that the witness provides all relevant information that is sought. While the U.S. Central Authority will attempt to execute Letters of Request that do not include a specific list of questions, there is no guarantee that the responses elicited will satisfy the requesting authority.
If specific questions are not included in the Letter of Request, a witness will be provided a copy of the Letter of Request and will be allowed to respond as they deem appropriate. The U.S. Central Authority will not provide any further guidance as to the type of response the witness should provide.
|Les audiences sont-elles publiques ou à huis clos ?||
In the United States, evidence obtained pursuant to the Convention is generally not obtained in a courtroom or through a formal hearing before a judge. Requests are generally executed by obtaining written responses to interrogatories or collecting documents.
To the extent that a Letter of Request explicitly asks for a deposition, it is not typically private in the sense that it is not closed as a matter of law to non-parties. However, the deposition will be arranged privately by the Department of Justice attorney and the witness, or if appropriate, the witness's counsel, and the testimony is taken at a location selected by the Department of Justice, usually at the local U.S. Attorney’s Office. As a practical matter, there is seldom an opportunity for unrelated parties or individuals to be aware of such depositions or to otherwise attend.
|Les autorités judiciaires de votre État révisent-elles les commissions rogatoires, (par ex. en reformulant, réordonnant et /ou supprimant des questions choquantes ou des passages offensants, de telle sorte qu’elles puissent être exécutées en vertu des lois de l’État requis) ?||
Yes. As a general rule, the United States will execute Letters of Request using the English translation without making any changes or adjustments. However, in some circumstances, questions may be rephrased or restructured to assist the witness in better understanding the request. The United States also “blue pencils” Letters of Request that seek testimony on attachments or exhibits that are not included with the Letter of Request. In such situations, the United States will proceed with executing the Letter of Request, with the exception of any questions relating to the missing documents.
Additionally, if a portion of the Letter of Request is not executable pursuant to U.S. law, the United States will return that portion to the requesting authority unexecuted and proceed with executing the remainder of the Letter of Request.
|Le témoin peut-il se procurer à l’avance une copie des questions / sujets faisant l’objet de la commission rogatoire ?||Witness testimony is usually obtained through written interrogatories, whereby the witness is provided with a cover letter from the U.S. Department of Justice, an affidavit with the questions, the Letter of Request, and is then asked to complete the affidavit and sign the last page before a notary. To the extent that the request affirmatively asks for a deposition and provides all required information, there is no law within the United States that requires or prohibits Department of Justice lawyers from sharing the questions/matters to be addressed with the witness in advance. It is within the discretion of the assigned Department of Justice attorney to provide the witness with a copy of the Letter of Request or the questions in advance, if deemed appropriate.|
|Les documents produits par un témoin sont-ils authentifiés par le tribunal ?||No.|
|Le témoin prête-t-il généralement serment ?||If the testimony is provided through an affidavit, generally the affidavit will be signed by the witness and notarized. If the testimony is provided in a deposition, the court reporter will administer the oath. However, there is no requirement under U.S. law that either approach be used, and responsive testimony can be provided without an oath or notarized affidavit.|
|Le témoin peut-il être soumis à des interrogations supplémentaires et rappelé ?||Yes. Other than as provided by certain time duration limitations set by the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, there is generally no prohibition under U.S. laws or procedures for a witness to be made subject to subsequent examination, if the testimony has not been completed or all questions identified in the Letter of Request have not been answered by the conclusion of the first examination. However, if the basis for recall is a request by the requesting authority for additional testimony on new matters, a second Letter of Request will need to be submitted.|
|À quelles sanctions un témoin s’expose-t-il en cas de non-comparution ?||Yes, civil contempt.|
|Les interprètes facilitant l’interrogatoire du témoin doivent-ils être assermentés auprès du tribunal ?||No, there is no law or rule requiring certification of court interpreters.|
|De quelle manière le témoignage est-il transcrit ?||Witness testimony is usually obtained through written interrogatories. In limited circumstances, the testimony can be transcribed by a court reporter or by any other appropriate mechanism agreed upon by the parties.|
|Article 16||Applicable. L'autorisation préalable n'est pas requise.|
|Article 17||Applicable. L'autorisation préalable n'est pas requise.|
|Article 18||Applicable. Voir l'autorité compétente.|
Obtention de preuves par liaison vidéo
|Existe-t-il des obstacles juridiques à l’obtention de preuves par liaison vidéo ?||Yes. The United States does not permit the direct taking of evidence by video-link under Chapter I of the Convention. The United States permits the direct taking of evidence by video-link on a voluntary basis under Chapter II of the Convention, but such arrangements must be agreed upon privately and do not involve the U.S. Central Authority.|
|Technologies utilisées :||Not applicable.|
|Niveau d’interprétation exigé :||Not applicable.|
|Interprétation simultanée ou consécutive :||Not applicable.|
|Ressorts dans lesquels une interprétation est nécessaire :||Not applicable.|
|Qui paie les frais d’interprétation ?||Not applicable.|
|Comment votre État gérerait-il une commission rogatoire si le témoin n’acceptait pas de témoigner ?||
A request for the direct taking of evidence by video-link under Chapter I of the Convention will not be executed by the U.S. Central Authority as it is not asking the United States to obtain the evidence in conformance with its own domestic laws.
A witness can be compelled to provide evidence under Chapter I, but it will be a Department of Justice attorney who will obtain the testimony by directly asking the witness the questions provided by the foreign court. A witness should be voluntary when providing evidence by video-link directly to a foreign court under Chapter II. Although U.S. procedure allows an interested party to file a 28 U.S.C. § 1782(a) motion to request that a U.S. district court issue an order to compel a witness to provide evidence in aid of a foreign proceeding, it is unlikely that a U.S. court will compel a witness to directly provide evidence by video-link to a foreign court.
|Existe-t-il des obstacles juridiques à l’obtention de preuves par liaison vidéo ?||No. The United States permits the direct taking of evidence by video-link on a voluntary basis under Chapter II of the Convention, but such arrangements must be agreed upon privately and do not involve the U.S. Central Authority.|
|Technologies utilisées :||No information available.|
|Niveau d’interprétation exigé :||The type and level of interpretation services used can be stipulated by the parties involved. Generally, professional accredited interpreters are not required in the United States.|
|Interprétation simultanée ou consécutive :||Simultaneous or in sequence interpretation may be used.|
|Ressorts dans lesquels une interprétation est nécessaire :||No information available.|
|Qui paie les frais d’interprétation ?||How costs are paid or reimbursed must be arranged for by the parties involved.|
|Accords bilatéraux ou multilatéraux :||U.S. Department of State Bilateral Consular Conventions|
|Liens utiles :||
OIJA Evidence and Service Guidance available online in English, Spanish, Turkish, German, Portuguese, Polish, Arabic, and Hebrew.
|Autorité compétente (art. 8, 18)||art. 8 : clliquer ici.
art. 18 : clliquer ici.
|Autorités additionnelles (art. 24)|
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