Contracting Parties to this Convention that are also Members of the HCCH (i.e., the Organisation) are in bold; Contracting Parties that are not Members of the HCCH are in italics.

Contracting Party S 1 R/A/S2 Type3 EIF4 EXT5 Auth6 Res/D/N/DC7
Albania 18-V-2006 A 1-IV-2007 1 D,Res 34,55
Argentina 11-VI-2015
Armenia 1-III-2007 A 1-V-2008 1 D,Res 34,54,55
Australia 1-IV-2003 29-IV-2003 R 1-VIII-2003 2
Austria 1-IV-2003 22-XII-2010 R 1-IV-2011 1 D 23,26,52,54
Barbados 11-VII-2019 A 1-V-2020 1
Belgium 1-IV-2003 28-V-2014 R 1-IX-2014 1 D 23,26,34,44,52
Bulgaria 8-III-2006 A 1-II-2007 1 D,N,Res 23,26,34,52,55
Canada 23-V-2017
Croatia 30-X-2008 4-IX-2009 R 1-I-2010 2 D,Res 23,26,34,52,55
Cuba 20-II-2017 A 1-XII-2017 1 D 63
Cyprus 14-X-2003 21-VII-2010 R 1-XI-2010 1 D,Res 23,26,34,52,54,55
Czech Republic 4-III-1999 13-III-2000 R 1-I-2002 2 D,N 23,26,34,52
Denmark 1-IV-2003 30-VI-2011 R 1-X-2011 1 1 D 23,26,29,34,52,54,60
Dominican Republic 14-XII-2009 A 1-X-2010 1
Ecuador 5-XI-2002 A** 1-IX-2003 1
Estonia 6-VIII-2002 A 1-VI-2003 1 D,Res 34,54
Fiji 5-VI-2018 A 1-IV-2019 Res
Finland 1-IV-2003 19-XI-2010 R 1-III-2011 1 D 23,26,52
France 1-IV-2003 15-X-2010 R 1-II-2011 1 D 23,26,34,52
Georgia 1-IV-2014 A 1-III-2015 1 D,Res 34,44,54,60
Germany 1-IV-2003 17-IX-2010 R 1-I-2011 2 D,Res 23,26,52,54
Greece 1-IV-2003 7-II-2012 R 1-VI-2012 1 D 23,26,34,52
Guyana 5-II-2019 A 1-XII-2019 1
Honduras 16-X-2017 A 1-VIII-2018 1
Hungary 4-VII-2005 13-I-2006 R 1-V-2006 1 D 23,26,34,52,54,55
Ireland 1-IV-2003 30-IX-2010 R 1-I-2011 1 D 23,26,34,52
Italy 1-IV-2003 30-IX-2015 R 1-I-2016 D,Res 23,26,34,44,52,55,60
Latvia 15-V-2002 12-XII-2002 R 1-IV-2003 2 D,Res 34,52,54,55
Lesotho 18-VI-2012 A 1-VI-2013 1
Lithuania 29-X-2003 A 1-IX-2004 3 D,Res 23,26,34,52,55
Luxembourg 1-IV-2003 5-VIII-2010 R 1-XII-2010 1 D 23,26,52
Malta 24-II-2011 A 1-I-2012 1 D,Res 34,54,55,60
Monaco 14-V-1997 14-V-1997 R 1-I-2002 1
Montenegro 14-II-2012 A 1-I-2013 2 D 34,55
Morocco 19-X-1996 22-VIII-2002 R 1-XII-2002 1
Netherlands 1-IX-1997 31-I-2011 R 1-V-2011 2 1 D 6,23,26,52
Nicaragua 27-II-2019 A 1-XII-2019 1 Res,DC Arts 2-4
Norway 30-IV-2016 30-IV-2016 R 1-VII-2016 1 D
Paraguay 12-IX-2018 A 1-VII-2019 1
Poland 22-XI-2000 27-VII-2010 R 1-XI-2010 1 D,Res 23,26,34,52,55
Portugal 1-IV-2003 14-IV-2011 R 1-VIII-2011 1 D 23,26,52
Republic of North Macedonia 9-XII-2019
Romania 15-XI-2006 8-IX-2010 R 1-I-2011 3 D,Res 23,26,34,52,55
Russian Federation 20-VIII-2012 A 1-VI-2013 1 D,Res 34,54,55,60, 63
Serbia 15-I-2016 A 1-XI-2016 1 D,Res
Slovakia 1-VI-1999 21-IX-2001 R 1-I-2002 3 D,Res 23,26,34,52,55
Slovenia 13-V-2004 11-X-2004 R 1-II-2005 1 D 23,26,34,52
Spain 1-IV-2003 6-IX-2010 R 1-I-2011 1 D,Res 23,26,34,52,55
Sweden 1-IV-2003 26-IX-2012 R 1-I-2013 1 D,Res 23,26,52,54,60
Switzerland 1-IV-2003 27-III-2009 R 1-VII-2009 1 Res 55
Turkey 7-X-2016 7-X-2016 R 1-II-2017 1 D,Res 34, 54, 55, 60
Ukraine 3-IV-2007 A 1-II-2008 1 D,Res 34,55
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 1-IV-2003 27-VII-2012 R 1-XI-2012 1 1 D,Res 23,26,34,52,54
United States of America 22-X-2010
Uruguay 17-XI-2009 17-XI-2009 R 1-III-2010 1

Type


Res/D/N

Albania Articles Declarations Reservations

Declaration
In accordance with Article 34 of the Convention, the Republic of Albania declares that requests under paragraph 1 of this Article shall be communicated to its authorities only through its Central Authority.

Reservation
In accordance with paragraph 1 of Article 60 of the Convention, the Republic of Albania reserves the right of jurisdiction of its authorities to take measures directed to the protection of the property of a child situated on its territory;
and reserves the right not to recognise any parental responsibility or measure in so far as it is incompatible with any measure taken by its authorities in relation to that property, as it is provided in paragraph 1 of Article 55 of the Convention.

Armenia Articles Declarations Reservations

Declaration
Pursuant to Article 34, paragraph 2, of the Convention (...), the Republic of Armenia declares that requests under Article 34, paragraph 1, of the Convention shall be communicated to its authorities only through its Central Authority.

Reservations
Pursuant to Article 60 of the Convention, the Republic of Armenia makes the following reservations:

  • in accordance with Article 54, paragraph 2, of the Convention, to object to the use of French;
  • in accordance with Article 55, paragraph 1, sub-paragraph a, to reserve the jurisdiction of its authorities to take measures directed to the protection of real estate and other property of a child which is situated on its territory and is subject to state registration;
  • in accordance with Article 55, paragraph 1, sub-paragraph b, not to recognise any parental responsibility or measure in so far as it is incompatible with any measures taken by its authorities in relation to that property.
  • Austria Articles Declarations

    Declarations:

    Articles 23, 26 and 52 of the Convention allow Contracting Parties a degree of flexibility in order to apply a simple and rapid regime for the recognition and enforcement of judgments. The Community rules provide for a system of recognition and enforcement which is at least as favourable as the rules laid down in the Convention. Accordingly, a judgment given in a Court of a Member State of the European Union, in respect of a matter relating to the Convention, shall be recognised and enforced in Austria by application of the relevant internal rules of Community law.

    The Republic of Austria makes a reservation in accordance with Article 54 paragraph 2 and Article 60 paragraph 1, objecting the use of the French language.

    The Republic of Austria declares according to Article 52 paragraph 1 that the provisions of this Convention on applicable law shall prevail over the provisions of the Agreement between the Republic of Austria and the People's Republic of Poland on Mutual Legal Relations in Civil Matters and on Documents with final protocol and additional protocol.

    The Republic of Austria informs in accordance with Article 45 paragraph 1 and Article 44 that a query in accordance with Article 33 shall be sent to the Central Authority.

    27-09-2017

    The Government of Austria has examined the declaration made by the Republic of Turkey upon ratification of the Convention on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Cooperation in respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children adopted on 19 October 1996. It welcomes the ratification of the Convention by Turkey as a significant step in enhancing the protection of children. However, as a member state of the European Union, Austria opposes the declaration made by the Republic of Turkey which describes another member state, the Republic of Cyprus, as a defunct entity.

    09-03-2018

    Austria takes note of the Declarations submitted by Ukraine on 16 October 2015 regarding the application of the Convention on Civil Procedure (1954), the Convention Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents (1961), the Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction (1980) and the Convention on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Co-operation in Respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children (1996) to the "Autonomous Republic of Crimea" and the city of Sevastopol and of the Declarations submitted by the Russian Federation on 19 July 2016 in relation to the Declarations made by Ukraine.

    In relation to the Declarations made by the Russian Federation, Austria declares, in line with the conclusions of the European Council of 20/21 March 2014, that it does not recognise the illegal referendum in Crimea and the illegal annexation of the "Autonomous Republic of Crimea" and the city of Sevastopol to the Russian Federation.

    As regards the territorial scope of the above Conventions, Austria therefore considers that the Conventions in principle continue to apply to the "Autonomous Republic of Crimea" and the city of Sevastopol as part of the territory of Ukraine.

    Austria further notes the Declarations by Ukraine that the "Autonomous Republic of Crimea" and the city of Sevastopol are temporarily not under the control of Ukraine and that the application and implementation by Ukraine of its obligations under the Conventions is limited and not guaranteed in relation to this part of Ukraine's territory, and that only the central authorities of Ukraine in Kiev will determine the procedure for relevant communication. As a consequence of the above, Austria declares that it will not engage in any direct communication or interaction with authorities in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol and will not accept any documents or requests emanating from such authorities or through the authorities of the Russian Federation, but will only engage with the central authorities of Ukraine in Kiev for the purposes of the application and implementation of the conventions.

    Belgium Articles Declarations

    Articles 23, 26 and 52 of the Convention allow Contracting Parties a degree of flexibility in order to apply a simple and rapid regime for the recognition and enforcement of judgments. The Community rules provide for a system of recognition and enforcement which is at least as favourable as the rules laid down in the Convention. Accordingly, a judgment given in a Court of a Member State of the European Union, in respect of a matter relating to the Convention, shall be recognised and enforced in Belgium by application of the relevant internal rules of Community law.

    (Translation)
    In accordance with Article 34, paragraph 2, of the Convention, the Kingdom of Belgium declares that requests made under paragraph 1 of Article 34 shall be communicated to its authorities only through the relevant Central Authority.
    In accordance with Article 29 of the Convention, the Federal Public Service Justice is designated as the Central Authority.
    In accordance with Article 44 of the Convention, the Federal Public Service Justice is designated as the authority to which requests under Articles 8, 9 and 33 of the Convention are to be addressed.

    Bulgaria Articles Declarations Notifications Reservations

    In accordance with Article 34, paragraph 2, of the Convention, the Republic of Bulgaria declares that requests under paragraph 1 of the same article shall be communicated only through its Central Authority.

    In accordance with Article 60, paragraph 1, and pursuant to Article 55, paragraph 1, of the Convention, the Republic of Bulgaria reserves the jurisdiction of its authorities to take measures directed to the protection of property of a child situated on its territory, as well as the right not to recognise any parental responsibility or measure in so far as it is incompatible with any measure taken by its authorities in relation to that property.

    14-VII-2010
    Articles 23, 26, 52 of the Convention allow Contracting Parties a degree of flexibility in order to apply a simple and rapid regime for the recognition and enforcement of judgments. The Community rules provide for a system of recognition and enforcement which is at least as favourable as the rules laid down in the Convention.
    Accordingly, a judgment given in a court of a Member State of the European Union, in respect of a matter relating to the Convention, shall be recognized and enforced in the Republic of Bulgaria by application of the relevant internal rules of the Community law.

    Croatia Articles Declarations Reservations

    Declaration concerning Article 34, paragraph 2
    In accordance with Article 34, paragraph 2, of the Convention, the Republic of Croatia declares that requests under Article 34, paragraph 1, of the Convention, shall be communicated to its authorities only through its Central Authority.

    Declaration concerning Articles 23, 26, and 52
    The Republic of Croatia declares that, at the moment when it becomes the member of European Union, it shall apply the relevant internal rules of Community law to the recognition and enforcement of a decision, in respect of the matter relating to the Convention, issued by a Court of a Member State of the European Union. 

    Reservation concerning Article 60 in connection with Article 55
    In accordance with Article 60 of the Convention, the Republic of Croatia reserves the jurisdiction of its authorities to take measures for the protection of (immovable) property and related property's rights of a child, whereas such property is situated on its territory, and reserves the right not to recognise any decision on parental responsibility if it is incompatible with the measure of its authority in charge in relation to the property of a child.

    Cuba Articles Declarations

    Declaration:
    20-02-2017

    In accordance with the Constitution of the Republic of Cuba, all children have equal rights, independently of whether they are born in or out of wedlock. Any distinction based on the nature of parentage has been abolished. No declaration will be issued that distinguishes in any way between births on the basis of the marital status of the parents recorded on the children’s birth certificates or on any other document that makes reference to parentage.

    Cyprus Articles Declarations Reservations

    21 July 2010
    Pursuant to Article 45, paragraph 2, of the Convention (...), the Republic of Cyprus declares that requests [under] Article 34, paragraph 1, shall be communicated to its authorities only through its Central Authority.
    Pursuant to Article 60, paragraph 1, of the Convention, the Republic of Cyprus makes a reservation provided for in Article 54, that any communication sent to the Central Authority of the Republic of Cyprus shall be in the original language and shall be accompanied by a translation into English.
    Pursuant to Article 60, paragraph 1, of the Convention (...), the Republic of Cyprus reserves the jurisdiction of its authorities to take measures directed to the protection of property of a child situated on its territory and reserves the right not to recognize any parental responsibility or measure in so far as it is incompatible with any measure taken by its authorities in relation to that property, as it is provided in paragraph 1 of Article 55 of the Convention.

    24 March 2011
    Articles 23, 26 and 52 of the Convention allow Contracting Parties a degree of flexibility in order to apply a simple and rapid regime for the recognition and enforcement of judgments. The Community rules provide for a system of recognition and enforcement which is at least as favourable as the rules laid down in the Convention. Accordingly, a judgment given in a court of a Member State of the European Union, in respect of a matter relating to the Convention, shall be recognised and enforced in the Republic of Cyprus by application of the relevant internal rules of Community law.
    (...) in accordance with Article 60, paragraph 2, of the said Convention, the withdrawal of the Reservation submitted by Cyprus at the time of ratification of the Convention pursuant to Article 60, paragraph 1. The withdrawal of the Reservation (....) concerns the Reservation submitted by Cyprus at the time of ratification in relation to Article 55 of the Convention.

    8 December 2016
    The Republic of Cyprus has examined the Declaration deposited by the Republic of Turkey upon ratification of the Convention on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Cooperation in respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children dated 7 October 2016 and registered at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of the Netherlands on the same date.

    The Republic of Turkey declares that its ratification of the Convention on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Co-operation in respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children neither amounts to any form of recognition of the Republic of Cyprus, as party to that Convention, nor should it imply any obligation on the part of the Republic of Turkey to enter into any dealing with the Republic of Cyprus within the framework of the said Convention.

    In the view of the Republic of Cyprus, the content and purported effect of this Declaration makes it tantamount in its essence to a reservation contrary to the object and purpose of the Convention. By such Declaration, the Republic of Turkey purports to evade its obligations under the Convention vis-à-vis another equal and sovereign State Party, namely the Republic of Cyprus. Indeed, the Declaration prevents the realization of cooperation between State Parties foreseen by the Convention.

    The Republic of Cyprus therefore strongly rejects the aforesaid Declaration made by the Republic of Turkey and considers such declaration to be null and void. The aforementioned objections by the Republic of Cyprus shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention, in their entirety, between the Republic of Cyprus and the Republic of Turkey.

    Regarding the Republic of Turkey's pretension, as expressed in the same Declaration, that the Republic of Cyprus is “defunct” and that “there is no single authority which in law or in fact is competent to represent jointly the Turkish Cypriots and the Greek Cypriots and consequently Cyprus as a whole”, the Republic of Cyprus would like to remind of the following:

    Despite, being, through binding international agreements, a guarantor of “the independence, territorial integrity and security of the Republic of Cyprus” (Article II of the 1960 Treaty of Guarantee), the Republic of Turkey illegally invaded Cyprus in 1974 and continues since then occupying 36.2% of the territory of the Republic.

    The illegality of such aggression was made manifested by the U.N. Security Council Resolutions 541 (1983) and 550 (1984). Resolution 541's operative para. 2 considers “ the declaration [of the Turkish Cypriot authorities of the purported secession of part of the Republic of Cyprus] as legally invalid and « calls for its withdrawal”. Para.3 then “reiterates the call upon all States to respect the sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity and non-alignment of the Republic of Cyprus and further calls upon all states not to recognize any Cypriot state other than the Republic of Cyprus”. Resolution 550, operative para. 2, also “condemns all secessionist actions, including the purported exchange of Ambassadors between Turkey and the Turkish Cypriot leadership, declares them illegal and invalid, and calls for their immediate withdrawal”. Para. 3 then “reiterates the call upon all States not to recognize the purported state of the 'Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus" set up by secessionist acts and calls upon them not to facilitate or in any way assist the aforesaid secessionist entity”.

    The European Court of Human Rights additionally, in its Judgment of 10th May 2001 on the Fourth Interstate Application of Cyprus v. Turkey, found, at para. 77, that Turkey, which has “effective control over northern Cyprus”, is responsible for securing all human rights under the European Convention on Human Rights and for violations of such rights by her own soldiers or officials, or by the local administration, which are imputable to Turkey. The responsibilities of the occupying power emanate from international humanitarian law, including the Fourth Geneva Convention.

    Turkey is responsible for the policies and actions of the "TRNC" because of the effective control she exercises through her army. Her responsibility is engaged by virtue of the acts of the local administration, which survives by virtue of Turkish military and other support (Cyprus v. Turkey, Judgment, 10 May 2001, at pp. 20-21, reiterating Loizidou). From the judgments of the European Court of Human Rights and the Security Council Resolutions on Cyprus, it is evident that the international community does not regard the 'TRNC" (Turkey's subordinate local administration in occupied Cyprus, condemned in the strongest terms by the Security Council) as a State under international law (Cyprus v. Turkey, 10 May 2001, para. 61). In contrast, the Republic of Cyprus has repeatedly been held to be the sole legitimate Government of Cyprus, contrary to Turkey's assertions about that Government, which Turkey calls "the Greek Cypriot Administration" with pretences "to represent the defunct Republic". The Turkish assertions constitute a propaganda ploy to divert attention from Turkey's responsibility for the violations in occupied Cyprus. Turkey's assertions and her assorted objections to the Republic of Cyprus' authority, jurisdiction and sovereignty, and her claims on behalf of the Turkish Cypriots and the "TRNC", have repeatedly been rejected by the international community and relevant judicial bodies where such claims were fully argued and then rejected in Cyprus's pleadings. Misrepresentations about the treatment of Turkish Cypriots by the Government of Cyprus were made. (These claims were repeated in Turkey's current Declaration). In fact, the European Court of Human Rights and the Commission accepted Cyprus arguments and refutation of Turkish assertions and exaggerations about the period prior to Turkey's invasion of Cyprus in July 1974. It refused to pronounce on Turkey's version of the ejection of Turkish Cypriots from offices of State (there was in fact a Turkish boycott).

    It is now time for the relevant pronouncement in Resolutions and the decisions therein, as well as in judgments of the European Court of Human Rights to be heard and acted upon. The Court itself insisted in its 12 May 2014 Just Satisfaction Judgment that this must happen once the Court had spoken (Cyprus v. Turkey, p. 23 Joint Concurring Judgment of nine Judges). It should be emphasized that, as recently as 26 July 2016 (Security Council Resolution 2300), the Security Council reaffirmed all its relevant Resolutions on Cyprus, having, over several decades, reiterated their content.

    Nevertheless, the Republic of Turkey, not only flagrantly holds in contempt all relevant U.N. Resolutions, International Law rules and the UN Charter on the matter, but furthermore she continues violating international legality, by systematically questioning the legitimacy of the Republic of Cyprus and further promoting the illegal secessionist entity in the occupied part of the Republic of Cyprus, including through declarations, as the one at hand.

    Czech Republic Articles Declarations Notifications

    Pursuant to Article 34, para. 2, of the Convention, the Czech Republic has the honour to declare that requests under Article 34, para. 1, of the Convention are to be communicated to its authorities only through the Authority for International Legal Protection of Children, having its seat in Brno, Benešova 22.

    Pursuant to Article 44 of the Convention, the Czech Republic has the honour to designate the Ministry of Justice of the Czech Republic, having its seat in Praha 2, Vyšehradská 16, as the authority to which requests for assuming or handing over jurisdiction under Articles 8 and 9 of the Convention, related to judicial proceeding in the Czech Republic or in another Contracting State, are to be addressed. The other requests under Articles 8 and 9 of the Convention and requests for consent to the placement of the child in a foster family or institutional care under Article 33 of the Convention are to be addressed to the Authority for International Legal Protection of Children, having its seat in Brno, Benešova 22.

    16 September 2004
    Articles 23, 26 and 52 of the Convention allow Contracting Parties a degree of flexibility in order to apply a simple and rapid regime for the recognition and enforcement of judgments. The Community rules provide for a system of recognition and enforcement, which is at least as favourable as the rules laid down in the Convention. Accordingly, a judgment given in a Court of a Member State of the European Union, in respect of a matter relating to the Convention, shall be recognised and enforced in the Czech Republic by application of the relevant internal rules of Community law.

    18 May 2011
    The Czech Republic declares, pursuant to Article 52, paragraph 1 of the Convention, that the rules on applicable law of the Convention shall take precedence over the rules of the Treaty between the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the Polish People's Republic on Legal Aid and Settlement of Legal Relations in Civil, Family, Labour and Criminal Matters, signed at Warsaw on 21 December 1987.

    Denmark Articles Declarations

    1 April 2003
    Articles 23, 26 and 52 of the Convention allow Contracting Parties a degree of flexibility in order to apply a simple and rapid regime for the recognition and enforcement of judgments. The Community rules provide for a system of recognition and enforcement which is at least as favourable as the rules laid down in the Convention. Accordingly, a judgment given in a Court of a Member State of the European Union, in respect of a matter relating to the Convention, shall be recognised and enforced in Denmark by application of the relevant internal rules of Community law.

    30 June 2011
    In accordance with Article 34, paragraph 2, the Kingdom of Denmark declares that requests under Article 34, paragraph 1, shall be communicated to its authorities only through its Central Authority.
    In accordance with Article 60, paragraph 1, the Kingdom of Denmark declares that it objects to the use of French as provided for in Article 54, paragraph 2.
    The Convention shall not apply to Greenland [see declaration below] and the Faroe Islands.

    22 April 2016
    The Convention should now be applied to Greenland wherefore the Kingdom of Denmark withdraws its territorial declaration with regard to Greenland in accordance with Article 60, paragraph 2.

    15 July 2016
    With reference to Articles 29 and 44 of the 1996 Hague Convention […] the Central Authority in relation to Greenland is the Danish Central Authority under the conventions - the Ministry of Social Affairs and the Interior.

    Estonia Articles Declarations Reservations

    Pursuant to Article 34, paragraph 2, of the Convention, the Republic of Estonia notifies that the requests under paragraph 1 of the same article shall be communicated to the authorities of the Republic of Estonia only through its Central Authority.

    Pursuant to Article 60, paragraph 1, of the Convention, the Republic of Estonia makes a reservation provided for in Article 54 that any communication sent to the Central Authority of the Republic of Estonia shall be in the original language, and shall be accompanied by a translation into English.

    17-05-2005
    Articles 23, 26 and 52 of the Convention allow Contracting Parties a degree of flexibility in order to apply a simple and rapid regime for the recognition and enforcement of judgments. The Community rules provide for a system of recognition and enforcement which is at least as favourable as the rules laid down in the Convention. Accordingly, a judgment given in a Court of a Member State of the European Union, in respect of a matter relating to the Convention, shall be recognised and enforced in Estonia by application of the relevant internal rules of Community law.

    12-07-2012
    The Republic of Estonia declares, pursuant to Article 52, paragraph 1 of the Convention, that the rules on applicable law of the Convention shall take precedence over the rules of the Agreement between the Republic of Estonia and the Republic of Poland on granting legal assistance and legal relatonships in civil, labour and criminal matters, signed in Tallin on November 27, 1998.

    04-03-2014
    The Republic of Estonia declares, pursuant to Article 52, paragraph 1 of the Convention, that the rules on applicable law of this Convention shall take precedence over the rules of the Agreement between the Republic of Estonia, the Republic of Latvia and the Republic of Lithuania on Legal Assistance and Legal Relationships, signed in Tallinn on 11 November 1992.

    30-04-2019
    Estonia takes note of the Declarations submitted by Ukraine on 16 October 2015 regarding the application of the Convention Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents (1961), the Convention on the service abroad of judicial and extrajudicial documents in civil or commercial matters (1965), the Convention on the taking of evidence abroad in civil or commercial matters (1970) and the Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child
    Abduction (1980) and the Convention on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Co-operation in Respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children (1996) to the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol and of the Declarations submitted by the Russian Federation on 19 July 2016 in relation to the Declarations made by Ukraine.

    In relation to the Declarations made by the Russian Federation, Estonia declares, in line with the conclusions of the European Council of 20/21 March 2014, that it does not recognise the illegal referendum in Crimea and the illegal annexation of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol to the Russian Federation.

    As regards the territorial scope of the above Conventions, Estonia therefore considers that the conventions in principle continue to apply to the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol as part of the territory of Ukraine.

    Estonia further notes the Declaration by Ukraine that the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol are temporarily not under the control of Ukraine and that the application and implementation by Ukraine of its obligations under the Conventions is limited and not guaranteed in relation to this part of Ukraine's territory, and that only the central authorities of Ukraine in Kyiv will determine the procedure for relevant communication.

    As a consequence of the above, Estonia declares that it will not engage in any direct communication or interaction with authorities in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol and will not accept any documents or requests emanating from such authorities or through the authorities of the Russian Federation, but will only engage with the central authorities of Ukraine in Kyiv for the purposes of the application and implementation of the conventions.

    Fiji Articles Reservations

    Reservation:

    05-06-2018

    Fiji reserves its right not to recognise orders made by other member States in relation to traditional land interests of a child for land administered by the iTaukei Land Trust Board in conjunction with iTaukei Lands Commission.

    Finland Articles Declarations

    Articles 23, 26 and 52 of the Convention allow Contracting Parties a degree of flexibility in order to apply a simple and rapid regime for the recognition and enforcement of judgments. The Community rules provide for a system of recognition and enforcement which is at least as favourable as the rules laid down in the Convention. Accordingly, a judgment given in a Court of a Member State of the European Union, in respect of a matter relating to the Convention, shall be recognised and enforced in Finland by application of the relevant internal rules of Community law.

    19-09-2018
    The Government of Finland takes note of the Declarations submitted by Ukraine on 16 October 2015 regarding the application of the Convention on Civil Procedure (1954), the Convention Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents (1961), the Convention on the service abroad of judicial and extrajudicial documents in civil or commercial matters (1965), the Convention on the taking of evidence abroad in civil or commercial matters (1970), the Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction (1980) and the Convention on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Co-operation in Respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children (1996) and the Convention on the International Recovery of Child Support and Other Forms of Family Maintenance (2007) to the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol and of the Declarations submitted by the Russian Federation on 19 July 2016 in relation to the Declarations made by Ukraine.

    In relation to the Declarations made by the Russian Federation, Finland declares, in line with the conclusions of the European Council of 20/21 March 2014, that it does not recognise the illegal referendum in Crimea and the illegal annexation of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol to the Russian Federation.

    As regards the territorial scope of the above Conventions, Finland therefore considers that the conventions in principle continue to apply to the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol as part of the territory of Ukraine.

    Finland further notes the Declaration by Ukraine that the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol are temporarily not under the control of Ukraine and that the application and implementation by Ukraine of its obligations under the Conventions is limited and not guaranteed in relation to this part of Ukraine's territory, and that only the central authorities of Ukraine in Kyiv will determine the procedure for relevant communication.

    As a consequence of the above, Finland declares that it will not engage in any direct communication or interaction with authorities in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol and will not accept any documents or requests emanating from such authorities or through the authorities of the Russian Federation, but will only engage with the central authorities of Ukraine in Kyiv for the purposes of the application and implementation of the said conventions.

    France Articles Declarations

    Articles 23, 26 and 52 of the Convention allow Contracting Parties a degree of flexibility in order to apply a simple and rapid regime for the recognition and enforcement of judgments. The Community rules provide for a system of recognition and enforcement which is at least as favourable as the rules laid down in the Convention. Accordingly, a judgment given in a Court of a Member State of the European Union, in respect of a matter relating to the Convention, shall be recognised and enforced in France by application of the relevant internal rules of Community law.

    Declaration pursuant to Article 34, paragraph 2:
    France declares that requests under paragraph 1 of this Article shall be communicated to its authorities only through its Central Authority.

    8 July 2011
    (Translation)
    The French Republic declares, pursuant to Article 52, paragraph 1 of the Convention, that the provisions on applicable law of this Convention shall take precedence over the provisions of the Convention between the French Republic and the People's Republic of Poland on Applicable Law, Jurisdiction and the Enforcement of Judgments in the Field of Personal and Family Law, signed at Warsaw on 5 April 1967.

    Georgia Articles Declarations Reservations

    In accordance with paragraph 2 of Article 34 of the Convention, Georgia declares that the information under paragraph 1 of this Article shall be requested from Georgia authorities only through its Central Authority (Ministry of Justice of Georgia).

    In accordance with Article 44 of the Convention, Georgia declares that the requests according to Articles 8, 9 and 33 of the Convention shall be sent to the Central Authority of Georgia (Ministry of Justice of Georgia).

    In accordance with paragraph 1 of Article 60 and paragraph 2 of article 54 Georgia makes a reserervation that any communication sent to the Central Authority of Georgia (Ministry of Justice of Georgia) shall be accompagnied by a translation into the official language of Georgia or into English. In this respect, Georgia objects to the use of French.

     

    Germany Articles Declarations Reservations

    Articles 23, 26 and 52 of the Convention allow Contracting Parties a degree of flexibility in order to apply a simple and rapid regime for the recognition and enforcement of judgments. The Community rules provide for a system of recognition and enforcement which is at least as favourable as the rules laid down in the Convention. Accordingly, a judgment given in a Court of a Member State of the European Union, in respect of a matter relating to the Convention, shall be recognised and enforced in Germany by application of the relevant internal rules of Community law.

    17-09-2010
    The Federal Republic of Germany makes a reservation, in accordance with Article 54, paragraph 2, and Article 60 of the Convention, objecting to the use of the French language.

    06-06-2018
    The Federal Republic of Germany takes note of the Declarations submitted by Ukraine on 16 October 2015 regarding the application of the Convention on Civil Procedure (1954), the Convention Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents (1961), the Convention on the service abroad of judicial and extrajudicial documents in civil or commercial matters (1965), the Convention on the taking of evidence abroad in civil or commercial matters (1970), the Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction (1980) and the Convention on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Co-operation in Respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children (1996) and the Convention on the International Recovery of Child Support and Other Forms of Family Maintenance (2007) to the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol and of the Declarations submitted by the Russian Federation on 19 July 2016 in relation to the Declarations made by Ukraine.

    In relation to the Declarations made by the Russian Federation, the Federal Republic of Germany declares, in line with the conclusions of the European Council of 20/21 March 2014, that it does not recognise the illegal referendum in Crimea and the illegal annexation of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol to the Russian Federation.

    Regarding the territorial scope of the above Conventions, the Federal Republic of Germany therefore considers that the Conventions in principle continue to apply to the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol as part of the territory of Ukraine.

    The Federal Republic of Germany further notes the Declarations by Ukraine that the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol are temporarily not under the control of Ukraine and that the application and implementation by Ukraine of its obligations under the Conventions is limited and not guaranteed in relation to this part of Ukraine's territory, and that only the government of Ukraine will determine the procedure for relevant communication.

    As a consequence of the above, the Federal Republic of Germany declares that it will only engage with the government of Ukraine for the purposes of the application and implementation of the conventions with regard to the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol.

    Greece Articles Declarations

    Declarations:

    Articles 23, 26 and 52 of the Convention allow Contracting Parties a degree of flexibility in order to apply a simple and rapid regime for the recognition and enforcement of judgments. The Community rules provide for a system of recognition and enforcement which is at least as favourable as the rules laid down in the Convention. Accordingly, a judgment given in a Court of a Member State of the European Union, in respect of a matter relating to the Convention, shall be recognised and enforced in Greece by application of the relevant internal rules of Community law.

    Greece declares that the applications, according to Article 34, paragraph 1, will be forwarded to the Authorities only through the Central Authority.

    02-10-2017
    The Government of the Hellenic Republic has examined the declaration made by the Republic of Turkey upon signing/ratification, on 7 October 2016, of the Convention on jurisdiction, applicable law, recognition enforcement and co-operation in respect of parental responsibility and measures for the protection of children.

    The above declaration raises grave concerns both from a political and a legal point of view.

    This declaration is politically unacceptable to the extent that a Member State of the United Nations and other international and regional organizations, such as the Hague Conference on Private International Law, the Council of Europe and the European Union, is designated as defunct, contrary to the relevant decisions and resolutions of these organizations.

    Likewise, this declaration is problematic from the legal point of view in so far as it provides that the signing/ratification by Turkey of the Convention on jurisdiction, applicable law, recognition, enforcement and co-operation in respect of parental responsibility and measures for the protection of children, should not imply any obligation on the part of Turkey to enter into any dealing with the Republic of Cyprus within the framework of the said Convention. In fact, this statement amounts to a reservation, as it purports to exclude the application of the Convention in its entirety between Turkey and the Republic of Cyprus. This is however, contrary to article 60, paragraph 1, of the Convention, which explicitly mentions that, with the exception of the reservations provided for in Articles 54, paragraph 2, and 55 thereof, no other reservations shall be permitted.

    In the light of the above, the Government of the Hellenic Republic considers that the aforesaid Turkish reservation is impermissible as it is prohibited by article 60, paragraph 1, of the Convention on jurisdiction, applicable law, recognition, enforcement and co-operation in respect of parental responsibility and measures for the protection of children as well as contrary to the object and purpose of this Convention, to the extent that it prevents the realization of interState cooperation under the said Convention.

    The Government of the Hellenic Republic, therefore, objects to the declaration made by the Republic of Turkey upon signature/ratification of the above Convention.

    This objection shall not preclude the entry into force of the Convention between the Hellenic Republic and the Republic of Turkey.

    Hungary Articles Declarations

    Articles 23, 26 and 52 of the Convention allow Contracting Parties a degree of flexibility in order to apply a simple and rapid regime for the recognition and enforcement of judgments. The Community rules provide for a system of recognition and enforcement which is at least as favourable as the rules laid down in the Convention. Accordingly, a judgment given in a Court of a Member State of the European Union, in respect of a matter relating to the Convention, shall be recognised and enforced in Hungary by application of the relevant internal rules of Community law.

    1. To Paragraph 2 of Article 34
    Pursuant to Paragraph 2 of Article 34 of the Convention, the Republic of Hungary has the honour to declare that requests under Paragraph 1 of Article 34 of the Convention are to be communicated only to its Central Authority.

    2. To Paragraph 2 of Article 54
    Pursuant to Paragraph 2 of Article 54 of the Convention, the Republic of Hungary reserves the right to accept the requests communicated to its Central Authority only in Hungarian language, where that is not feasible, the request shall be accompanied by English translation.

    3. To Paragraph 1 of Article 55
    The Republic of Hungary reserves the jurisdiction of its authorities to take measures directed to the protection of property of a child situated on its territory, and reserves the right not to recognise any parental responsibility or measure in so far it is incompatible with any measure taken by its authorities in relation to that property.

    Ireland Articles Declarations

    Articles 23, 26 and 52 of the Convention allow Contracting Parties a degree of flexibility in order to apply a simple and rapid regime for the recognition and enforcement of judgments. The Community rules provide for a system of recognition and enforcement which is at least as favourable as the rules laid down in the Convention. Accordingly, a judgment given in a Court of a Member State of the European Union, in respect of a matter relating to the Convention, shall be recognised and enforced in Ireland by application of the relevant internal rules of Community law.

    Ireland, pursuant to Article 34, paragraph 2 of the Convention, hereby declares that requests under paragraph 1 of Article 34 shall be communicated to its authorities only through its Central Authority.

    Italy Articles Declarations Reservations

    Articles 23, 26 and 52 of the Convention allow Contracting Parties a degree of flexibility in order to apply a simple and rapid regime for the recognition and enforcement of judgments. The Community rules provide for a system of recognition and enforcement which is at least as favourable as the rules laid down in the Convention. Accordingly, a judgment given in a Court of a Member State of the European Union, in respect of a matter relating to the Convention, shall be recognised and enforced in Italy by application of the relevant internal rules of Community law.

    30 September 2015

    With reference to Articles 60 and 55, para 1, of the Convention, the Italian Republic reserves:

    1) the jurisdiction of its authorities to take measures directed to the protection of property of a child situated on its territory;
    2) the right not to recognize any parental responsibility or measure in so far as it is incompatible with any measure taken by Its authorities in relation to that property.

    With reference to Art. 34, para 2, of the Convention, the Italian Republic declares that requests under paragraph 34.1 shall be communicated to its authorities only through its Central Authority.

    With reference to Art. 44 of the Convention, the Italian Republic declares that the requests under Articles 8, 9 and 33 of the Convention are to be addressed to its designated Central Authority. 

    Latvia Articles Declarations Reservations

    Reservations:

    Pursuant to Article 45, paragraph 2, of the Convention (...), the Republic of Latvia declares that requests under Article 34, paragraph 1, shall be communicated to its authorities only through its Central Authority.

    Pursuant to Article 60, paragraph 1, of the Convention (...), the Republic of Latvia objects to the use of French as provided for in Article 54, paragraph 2, of the Convention.

    Pursuant to Article 60, paragraph 1, of the Convention (...), the Republic of Latvia reserves the jurisdiction of its authorities to take measures directed to the protection of property of a child situated on its territory as provided for in Article 55 of the Convention.

    Declarations:

    12-05-2009
    Articles 23, 26 and 52 of the Convention allow Contracting Parties a degree of flexibility in order to apply a simple and rapid regime for the recognition and enforcement of judgments. The Community rules provide for a system of recognition and enforcement which is at least as favourable as the rules laid down in the Convention. Accordingly, a judgment given in a court of a Member State of the European Union, in respect of a matter relating to the Convention, shall be recognised and enforced in Republic of Latvia by application of the relevant internal rules of Community law.

    07-03-2012
    In accordance with Article 52, paragraph 1 of the Convention (...), the Republic of Latvia declares that the provisions of this Convention on applicable law shall prevail over the provisions of the:
    - Agreement of 23 February 1994 between the Republic of Latvia and the Republic of Poland on Legal Assistance and Legal Relations in Civil, Family, Labour and Criminal Matters;
    - Agreement of 11 November 1992 between the Republic of Latvia, the Republic of Estonia and the Republic of Lithuania on Legal Assistance and Legal Relations.

    04-04-2018
    The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Latvia […] with reference to […] the Convention on Civil Procedure (1954), the Convention Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents (1961), the Convention on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil or Commercial Matters (1965), the Convention on the Taking of Evidence Abroad in Civil or Commercial Matters (1970), the Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction (1980),and the Convention on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Co-operation in Respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children (1996) has to honour to convey the following.

    The Government of the Republic of Latvia takes note of the Declarations submitted by Ukraine on 16 October 2015 regarding the application of the aforementioned Conventions to the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol and of the Declarations submitted by the Russian Federation on 19 July 2016 in relation to the Declarations made by Ukraine.

    In relation to the Declarations made by the Russian Federation, the Republic of Latvia declares, in line with the conclusions of the European Council of 20/21 March 2014, that it does not recognise the illegal referendum in Crimea and the illegal annexation of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol to the Russian Federation.

    As regards the territorial scope of the above Conventions, the Republic of Latvia therefore considers that the Conventions in principle continue to apply to the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol as part of the territory of Ukraine.

    The Republic of Latvia further notes the Declarations by Ukraine that the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol are temporarily not under the control of Ukraine and that the application and implementation by Ukraine of its obligations under the Convention is limited and
    not guaranteed in relation to this part of Ukraine's territory, and that only the central authorities of Ukraine in Kyiv will determine the procedure for relevant communication.

    As a consequence of the above, the Republic of Latvia declares that it will not engage in any direct communication or interaction with authorities in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol and will not accept any documents or requests emanating from such authorities or
    through the authorities of the Russian Federation, but will only engage with the central authorities of Ukraine in Kiev for the purposes of the application and implementation of the convention.

    Lithuania Articles Declarations Reservations

    Declarations:

    16-06-2020
    The Government of the Republic of Lithuania takes note of the Declarations submitted by Ukraine on 16 October 2015 regarding the application of the Convention on Civil Procedure (1954), the Convention Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents (1961), the Convention on the Service Abroad of Judicial and Extrajudicial Documents in Civil or Commercial Matters (1965), the Convention on the Taking of Evidence Abroad in Civil or Commercial Matters (1970), the Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction (1980) and the Convention on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Co-operation in Respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children (1996) to the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol and of the Declarations submitted by the Russian Federation on 19 July 2016 in relation to the Declarations made by Ukraine.

    In relation to the Declarations made by the Russian Federation, the Government of the Republic of Lithuania declares, in line with the conclusions of the European Council of 20/21 March 2014, that it does not recognize the illegal referendum in Crimea and the illegal annexation of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol to the Russian Federation.

    As regards the territorial scope of the above Conventions, the Government of the Republic of Lithuania therefore considers that the conventions in principle continue to apply to the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol as part of the territory of Ukraine.

    The Government of the Republic of Lithuania further notes the Declaration by Ukraine that the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol are temporarily not under the control of Ukraine and that the application and implementation by Ukraine of its obligations under the Conventions is limited and not guaranteed in relation to this part of Ukraine's territory, and that only the central authorities of Ukraine in Kyiv will determine the procedure for relevant communication.

    As a consequence of the above, the Government of the Republic of Lithuania declares that it will not engage in any direct communication or interaction with authorities in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol and will not accept any documents or requests emanating from such authorities or through the authorities of the Russian Federation, but will only engage with the central authorities of Ukraine in Kyiv for the purposes of the application and implementation of the said conventions.

    26-07-2004
    Articles 23, 26 and 52 of the Convention allow Contracting Parties a degree of flexibility in order to apply a simple and rapid regime for the recognition and enforcement of judgments.

    The Community rules provide for a system of recognition and enforcement which is at least as favourable as the rules laid down in the Convention. Accordingly, a judgment given in a Court of a Member State of the European Union, in respect of a matter relating to the Convention, shall be recognised and enforced in the Republic of Lithuania by application of the relevant internal rules of Community law.

    29-10-2003
    (...) that requests under paragraph 1 of Article 34 shall be communicated to its authorities only through its Central Authority;
    (...) that certificate under paragraph 1 of Article 40 is issued by the child's habitual residence's district court of the Republic of Lithuania;
    (...) that any communication sent to the Republic of Lithuania shall be translated into the Lithuanian language or, if it is not possible, into the English language;
    (...) that the Republic of Lithuania reserves the jurisdiction of its authorities to take measures directed to the protection of immovable property of a child situated in the territory of the Republic of Lithuania.

    Luxembourg Articles Declarations

    Articles 23, 26 and 52 of the Convention allow Contracting Parties a degree of flexibility in order to apply a simple and rapid regime for the recognition and enforcement of judgments. The Community rules provide for a system of recognition and enforcement which is at least as favourable as the rules laid down in the Convention. Accordingly, a judgment given in a Court of a Member State of the European Union, in respect of a matter relating to the Convention, shall be recognised and enforced in Luxembourg by application of the relevant internal rules of Community law.

    Malta Articles Declarations Reservations

    Pursuant to Article 34, paragraph 2 of the Convention, the Government of Malta declares, that requests received under Article 34, paragraph 1 of the Convention are to be communicated to its authorities only through its Central Authority.
    Pursuant to Article 54 paragraph 2 of the Convention, the Government of Malta declares, that it cannot accept communications in the French language.
    Pursuant to Article 60 and Article 55, paragraph 1 of the Convention, the Government of Malta reserves:
    a) the jurisdiction of its authorities to take measures directed to the protection of property of a child situated on its territory;
    b) the right not to recognise any parental responsibility or measure in so far as it is incompatible with any measure taken by its authorities in relation to that property.
    Articles 23, 26 and 52 of the Convention allow Contracting Parties a degree of flexibility in order to apply a simple and rapid regime for the recognition and enforcement of judgements. The Community rules provide for a system of recognition and enforcement which is at least as favourable as the rules laid down in the Convention. Accordingly, a judgment given in a Court of a Member State of the European Union, in respect of a matter relating to the Convention, shall be recognised and enforced in Malta by application of the relevant internal rules of Community law.

    Montenegro Articles Declarations

    In accordance with Article 60 and in relation with article 55 of the Convention on Jurisdiction, Applicable law, Recognition, Enforcement and Co-operation in Respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children adopted at The Hague on 19 October 1996, the Government of Montenegro declares that this Convention shall not apply to:

    Montenegro maintains the jurisdiction of its authorities to take measures directed to the protection of property of a child situated on its territory and maintains the right not to recognize any parental responsibility or measure insofar as it is incompatible with any measure taken by its authorities in relation to that property.

    In accordance with Article 34, paragraph 2, of the Convention, Montenegro declares that requests under Article 34, paragraph 1, of the Convention shall be communicated to its authorities only through the Central Authority.

    Netherlands Articles Declarations

    Articles 23, 26 and 52 of the Convention allow Contracting Parties a degree of flexibility in order to apply a simple and rapid regime for the recognition and enforcement of judgments. The Community rules provide for a system of recognition and enforcement which is at least as favourable as the rules laid down in the Convention. Accordingly, a judgement given in a Court of a Member State of the European Union, in respect of a matter relating to the Convention, shall be recognised and enforced in the Kingdom of the Netherlands by application of the relevant internal rules of Community law.

    In accordance with the provisions of Article 52, first paragraph, of the Convention (...) and Article 20 of the European Convention on recognition and enforcement of decisions concerning custody of children and on restoration of custody of children, concluded at Luxembourg on 20 May 1980, the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands declares that in the relations of the Netherlands with other States Parties to both the Convention of 1996 and the Convention of 1980, the former Convention shall take precedence.
    The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands declares that whereas Curaçao is not bound by the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, Article 6 of the present Convention shall be interpreted as containing a reference only to such other international human rights or humanitarian instruments as are binding on the Kingdom of the Netherlands with respect to Curaçao.

    Nicaragua Articles Reservations Depositary communications

    Notice from the Depositary
    13-05-2020
    Nicaragua deposited its instrument of accession to the above-mentioned Convention on 27 February 2019, as notified in Depositary Notification Protection of Children No. 02/2019.
    On 20 April 2020 the Depositary received reservations from Nicaragua in respect of Article 54 (2), Article 55 (1)(a) and Article 55 (1)(b) of the Convention.
    Article 60 of the Convention stipulates, however, that a State may make reservations provided for in Articles 54 (2) and 55, not later than the time of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
    The Depositary proposes to receive the reservations in question for deposit in the absence of any objection on the part of one of the Contracting States, either to the deposit itself or to the procedure envisaged, within a period of one year from the date of the present notification. In the absence of any such objection, the said reservations will be received for deposit upon the expiration of the above stipulated one year period, that is on 13 May 2021.

    Late Reservations:


    20-04-2020
    (Translation)
    Article 2
    Nicaragua expresses a reservation with regard to Article 54 (2). For the purposes of this Convention, Nicaragua will accept communications, requests and documentation which are accompanied by translations into the Spanish language, or, when this is difficult to achieve, accompanied by translations into English.

    Article 3
    Nicaragua expresses a reservation with regard to Article 55 (1)(a). Nicaragua will recognise the jurisdiction of its national authorities to take measures directed to the protection of property of a child only when the property in question is situated on its territory.

    Article 4
    Nicaragua expresses a reservation with regard to Article 55 (1)(b). Nicaragua reserves the right not to recognise any parental responsibility or measure in relation to property in so far as it is incompatible with any measure taken by its authorities in relation to that property, or when such a measure is incompatible with its national legislation.

    Norway Articles Declarations

    In accordance with Article 60, paragraph 1, the Kingdom of Norway declares that it objects to the use of French as provided for in Article 54, paragraph 2.

    In accordance with Article 34, paragraph 2 of the Convention, the Kingdom of Norway declares that requests under Article 34, parapgraph 1, shall be communicated to its authorities only through its Central Authority.

    In accordance with Article 44 of the Convention, the Kingdom of Norway declares that the Norwegian Central Authority is designated as the authority to which requests under Articles 8, 9 and 33 of the Convention are to be addressed.

    Poland Articles Declarations Reservations

    27 July 2010
    I - Declarations
    1) requests under Article 34 par. 1 shall be communicated only through the Ministry of Justice (Article 34 par. 2),
    2) Articles 23, 26 and 52 of the Convention allow Contracting Parties a degree of flexibility in order to apply a simple and rapid regime for the recognition and enforcement of judgments. The Community rules provide for a system of recognition and enforcement which is at least as favourable as the rules laid down in the Convention. Accordingly, a judgment given in a court of a Member State of the European Union, in respect of a matter relating to the Convention, shall be recognised and enforced in the Republic of Poland by application of the relevant internal rules of Community law.

    II - Reservations
    The Republic of Poland
    1) reserves the jurisdiction of its authorities in order to take measures directed to the protection of immovable property of a child situated in the territory of the Republic of Poland (Article 55 par. 1 sub-par. a),
    2) reserves the right not to recognise any parental responsibility or measure in so far as it is incompatible with any measure taken by the Polish authorities in relation to immovable property of a child situated in the territory of the Republic of Poland (Article 55 par. 1 sub-par. b).

    7 April 2011
    The Republic of Poland declares pursuant to Article 52 paragraph 1 that the rules on applicable law of this Convention shall take precedence over the rules of the Convention between Poland and Austria on mutual relations in civil matters and on documents signed at Vienna on 11 december 1963 as modified by the protocol signed at Vienna on 25 January 1973.

    18 May 2011
    The Republic of Poland declares, pursuant to Article 52, paragraph 1 of the Convention, that the rules on applicable law of the Convention shall take precedence over the rules of the Treaty between the Polish People's Republic and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic on Legal Aid and Settlement of Legal Relations in Civil, Family, Labour and Criminal Matters, signed at Warsaw on 21 December 1987.

    8 July 2011
    The Republic of Poland declares, pursuant to Article 52, paragraph 1 of the Convention, that de rules on applicable law of this Convention shall take precedence over the rules of the Convention between the People's Republic of Poland and the French Republic on Applicable Law, Jurisdiction and the Enforcement of Judgments in the Field of Personal and Family Law, concluded in Warsaw on 5 April 1967.

    24 May 2012
    The Republic of Poland declares, pursuant to Article 52, paragraph 1 of the Convention, that the rules on applicable law of the Convention shall take precedence over the rules of the Agreement between the Republic of Poland and the Republic of Latvia on Legal Assistance and Legal Relationships in Civil, Family, Labour and Criminal Matters, signed at Riga on 23 February 1994.

    12 July 2012
    The Republic of Poland declares, pursuant to Article 52, paragraph 1 of the Convention, that the rules on applicable law of the Convention shall take precedence over the rules of the Agreement between the Republic of Poland and the Republic of Estonia on Legal Assistance and Legal Relatonships in Civil, Family, Labour and Criminal Matters, signed at Tallin on 27 November 1998.

    Portugal Articles Declarations

    Declarations:

    Articles 23, 26 and 52 of the Convention allow Contracting Parties a degree of flexibility in order to apply a simple and rapid regime for the recognition and enforcement of judgments. The Community rules provide for a system of recognition and enforcement which is at least as favourable as the rules laid down in the Convention. Accordingly, a judgment given in a Court of a Member State of the European Union, in respect of a matter relating to the Convention, shall be recognised and enforced in Portugal by application of the relevant internal rules of Community law.

    02-10-2017

    Opposition of the Portuguese Republic to the declaration made by the Republic of Turkey to the Convention on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Co-operation in respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children, done at The Hague, 19 October 1996.

    The Government of the Portuguese Republic has examined the declaration made by the Republic of Turkey upon ratification of the Convention on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Co-operation in respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children, done at The Hague, on the 19th day of October 1996.
      
    It welcomes the ratification of the Convention by the Republic of Turkey since this is a significant step for the promotion of the protection of children in international situations.

    Nevertheless, the Portuguese Republic, as a European Union Member State, opposes the declaration made by the Republic of Turkey since it describes another Member State, the Republic of Cyprus, as a defunct entity.

    13-03-2018

     The Government of the Portuguese Republic takes note of the Declaration submitted by Ukraine on 16 October 2015 regarding the application of the Convention on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Co-operation in Respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children, done at The Hague, on 19 October 1996, to the "Autonomous Republic of Crimea" and the city of Sevastopol and of the Declaration submitted by the Russian Federation on 19 July 2016 in relation to the Declaration made by Ukraine.

    In relation to the Declaration made by the Russian Federation, the Government of the Portuguese Republic declares, in line with the conclusions of the European Council of 20/21 March 2014, that it does not recognise the illegal referendum in Crimea and the illegal annexation of the "Autonomous Republic of Crimea" and the city of Sevastopol to the Russian Federation.

    As regards the territorial scope of the above Convention, the Government of the Portuguese Republic therefore considers that the Convention in principle continues to apply to the "Autonomous Republic of Crimea" and the city of Sevastopol as part of the territory of Ukraine.

    The Government of the Portuguese Republic further notes the Declaration by Ukraine that the "Autonomous Republic of Crimea" and the city of Sevastopol are temporarily not under the control of Ukraine and that the application and implementation by Ukraine of its obligations under the Convention is limited and not guaranteed in relation to this part of Ukraine's territory, and that only the central authorities of Ukraine in Kiev will determine the procedure for relevant communication.

    As a consequence of the above, the Government of the Portuguese Republic declares that it will not engage in any direct communication or interaction with authorities in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol and will not accept any documents or requests emanating from such authorities or through the authorities of the Russian Federation, but will only engage with the central authorities of Ukraine in Kiev for the purposes of the application and implementation of the convention.

    Romania Articles Declarations Reservations

    Declarations:

    15-10-2006
    Articles 23, 26 and 52 of the Convention allow Contracting Parties a degree of flexibility in order to apply a simple and rapid regime for the recognition and enforcement of judgments. The Community rules provide for a system of recognition and enforcement which is at least as favourable as the rules laid down in the Convention. Accordingly, a judgment given in a Court of a Member State of the European Union, in respect of a matter relating to the Convention, shall be recognised and enforced in Romania, from the date of its accessopn to the European Union, by application of the relevant internal rules of Community law.

    08-09-2010
    1. In accordance with Article 34, paragraph 2 of the Convention, Romania declares that the requests received under paragraph 1 of Article 34 shall be communicated to its authorities only through its Central Authority, respectively, the National Authority for the Protection of Child's Rights;

    2. In accordance with Article 2 of the Council Decision no.2003/93/CE of 12 December 2002, authorizing the Member States, in the interest of the Community, to sign the 1996 Hague Convention on jurisdiction, applicable law, recognition, enforcement and co-operation in respect of parental responsibility and measures for the protection of children, published in the Official Journal of the European Communities no. L 48 of 21 February 2003, Romania declares the following:
    Articles 23, 26 and 52 of the Convention allow Contracting Parties a degree of flexibility in order to apply a simple and rapid regime for the recognition and enforcement of judgements. The Community rules provide for a system of recognition and enforcement which is at least as favourable as the rules laid down in the Convention. Accordingly, a judgement given in a Court of a Member State of the European Union, in respect of a matter relating to the Convention, shall be recognised and enforced in Romania by application of the relevant internal rules of Community law.

    14-06-2018
    Romania takes note of the Declarations submitted by Ukraine on 16 October 2015 regarding the application of the Convention on Civil Procedure (1954), the Convention Abolishing the Requirement of Legalisation for Foreign Public Documents (1961), the Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction (1980), the Convention on the service abroad of judicial and extrajudicial documents in civil or commercial matters (1965) and the Convention on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Co-operation in Respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children (1996) to the "Autonomous Republic of Crimea" and the city of Sevastopol and of the Declarations submitted by the Russian Federation on 19 July 2016 in relation to the Declarations made by Ukraine.

    In relation to the Declarations made by the Russian Federation, Romania declares, in line with the conclusions of the European Council of 20/21 March 2014, that it does not recognise the illegal referendum in Crimea and the illegal annexation of the "Autonomous Republic of Crimea" and the
    city of Sevastopol to the Russian Federation.

    As regards the territorial scope of the above Conventions, Romania therefore considers that the Conventions in principle continue to apply to the "Autonomous Republic of Crimea" and the city of Sevastopol as part of the territory of Ukraine.

    Romania further notes the Declarations by Ukraine that the "Autonomous Republic of Crimea" and the city of Sevastopol are temporarily not under the control of Ukraine and that the application and implementation by Ukraine of its obligations under the Conventions is limited and not guaranteed in relation to this part of Ukraine's territory, and that only the central authorities of Ukraine in Kiev will determine the procedure for relevant communication.

    As a consequence of the above, Romania declares that it will not engage in any direct communication or interaction with authorities in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol and will not accept any documents or requests emanating from such authorities or through the authorities of the Russian Federation, but will only engage with the central authorities of Ukraine in Kiev for the purposes of the application and implementation of the conventions.

    Reservation:

    08-09-2010

    In accordance with Article 60 together with Article 55, paragraph 1 of the Convention, Romania reserves:
    a) the competence of its authorities to take measures for the protection of the child's goods situated on its territory;
    b) the right not to recognize the parental responsibility or measures which are incompatible with the measures taken by its authorities concerning these goods.

    Russian Federation Articles Declarations Reservations

    The Russian Federation in accordance with Article 54, paragraph 2 and Article 60, paragraph 1 of the Convention objects to the use of French.
    The Russian Federation in accordance with Article 55, paragraph 1 and Article 60, paragraph 1 reserves the exclusive jurisdiction of its authorities to take measures directed to the protection of property of a child situated on the territory of the Russian Federation, and reserves its right not to recognise any parental responsibility or measure in so far as it is incompatible with any measure taken by the authorities of the Russian Federation in relation to that property.
    The Russian Federation in accordance with Article 34, paragraph 2 of the Convention declares that requests under Article 34, paragraph 1 of the Convention shall be communicated only through its designated Central Authority.

    Declaration:
    19-07-2016
    Unofficial translation

    Statement on the Convention of 19 October 1996 on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Co-operation in Respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children

    "Reaffirming its firm commitment to respect and fully comply with generally recognised principles and rules of international law, the Russian Federation, with reference to the declaration of Ukraine of 16 October 2015 regarding the Convention of 19 October 1996 on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Co-operation in Respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children, states the following.
    The Russian Federation rejects to the above mentioned declaration of Ukraine and states that it cannot be taken into consideration as it is based on a bad faith and incorrect presentation and interpretation of facts and law.
    The declaration of Ukraine regarding "certain districts of the Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts of Ukraine" cannot serve as a justification for non-compliance with its obligations, disregard for humanitarian considerations, refusal or failure to take necessary measures to find practical solutions for issues that have a very serious and direct impact on the ability of residents of those regions to exercise their fundamental rights and freedoms provided for by international law.
    The declaration of independence of the Republic of Crimea and its voluntary accession to the Russian Federation are the result of a direct and free expression of will by the people of Crimea in accordance with democratic principles, a legitimate form of exercising their right to self-determination given an aided from abroad violent coup d'état in Ukraine which caused rampant radical nationalist elements not hesitating to use terror, intimidation and harassment against both its political opponents and the population of entire regions of Ukraine.
    The Russian Federation rejects any attempts to call into question an objective status of the Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol as constituent entities of the Russian Federation, the territories of which are an integral part of the territory of the Russian Federation under its full sovereignty. Thus, the Russian Federation reaffirms that it fully complies with its international obligations under the Convention in relation to this part of its territory"

    Serbia Articles Declarations Reservations

    For receipt of requests of another Contracting States which have information relevant to the protection of the child, competent authority is the Ministry in charge for family protection.

    Reserve the jurisdiction of its authorities to take measures directed to the protection of property of a child situated on its territory;
    Reserve the right not to recognise any parental responsibility or measure in so far as it is incompatible with any measure taken by its authorities in relation to that property.

    Slovakia Articles Declarations Reservations

    Under Article 60 of the Convention, the Slovak Republic reserves the jurisdiction of its authorities to take measures directed to the protection of immovable property of a child situated on the territory of the Slovak Republic as well as the right not to recognize any parental responsibility or measure in so far as it is incompatible with any measure taken by its authorities in relation to such property.

    The Slovak Republic declares that requests under Article 34, paragraph 1, of the Convention shall be communicated to its authorities only through its Central Authority.

    Declaration made by the Slovak Republic on 11 May 2004:
    "Articles 23, 26 and 52 of the Convention allow Contracting Parties a degree of flexibility in order to apply a simple and rapid regime for the recognition and enforcement of judgments. The Community rules provide for a system of recognition and enforcement which is at least as favourable as the rules laid down in the Convention. Accordingly, a judgment given in a Court of a Member State of the European Union, in respect of a matter relating to the Convention, shall be recognised and enforced in the Slovak Republic by application of the relevant internal rules of Community law."

    Declaration made by the Slovak Republic on 6 May 2014:
    "The Slovak Republic declares persuant to Article 52 paragraph 1 that the rules on applicable law of this Convention shall take precedence over the rules of the Treaty between the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the Polish People's Republic on Legal Aid and on Legal Relations in Civil, Family, Labour and Criminal Matters, signed at Warsaw on 21 December 1987."

    Slovenia Articles Declarations

    Under the following declarations:

    "Articles 23, 26 and 52 of the Convention allow Contracting Parties a degree of flexibility in order to apply a simple and rapid regime for the recognition and enforcement of judgments. The Community rules provide for a system of recognition and enforcement which is at least as favourable as the rules laid down in the Convention. Accordingly, a judgment given in a Court of a Member State of the European Union, in respect of a matter relating to the Convention, shall be recognised and enforced in the Republic of Slovenia by application of the relevant internal rules of Community law."

    Declaration at the time of ratification:

    In compliance with Article 34, para. 2, of the said Convention, the Republic of Slovenia declares that the requests under Article 34, para. 1, of the Convention are to be communicated to its authorities only through the Ministry of Labour, Family and Social Affairs.

    Spain Articles Declarations Reservations

    1 April 2003
    Articles 23, 26 and 52 of the Convention allow Contracting Parties a degree of flexibility in order to apply a simple and rapid regime for the recognition and enforcement of judgments. The Community rules provide for a system of recognition and enforcement which is at least as favourable as the rules laid down in the Convention. Accordingly, a judgment given in a Court of a Member State of the European Union, in respect of a matter relating to the Convention, shall be recognised and enforced in Spain by application of the relevant internal rules of Community law.

    6 September 2010
    (Translation)
    If the Hague Convention of 19 October 1996 on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Cooperation in respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children were to be extended by the United Kingdom to the territory of Gibraltar, the Kingdom of Spain would like to make the following declaration:

    1. Gibraltar is a non-autonomous territory whose international relations come under the responsibility of the United Kingdom and which is subject to a decolonisation process in accordance with the relevant decisions and resolutions of the General Assembly of the United Nations.
    2. The authorities of Gibraltar have a local character and exercise exclusively internal competences which have their origin and their foundation in a distribution and attribution of competences performed by the United Kingdom in compliance with its internal legislation, in its capacity as sovereign State on which the said non-autonomous territory depends.
    3. As a result, any participation of the Gibraltar authorities in the application of this Convention will be understood as carried out exclusively within the framework of the internal competences of Gibraltar and cannot be considered to modify in any way the provisions of the two previous paragraphs.
    4. The process provided for by the Arrangements relating to Gibraltar authorities in the context of certain international treaties (2007), agreed by Spain and the United Kingdom on 19 December 2007, applies to the Hague Convention of 19 October 1996 on Jurisdiction, Applicable Law, Recognition, Enforcement and Cooperation in respect of Parental Responsibility and Measures for the Protection of Children.

    Pursuant to the provisions of article 34, paragraph 2 of the Convention, Spain declares that the requests referred to in article 34, paragraph 1 shall be communicated to its authorities solely through its Central Authority.

    In accordance with the provisions of Article 55:
    Pursuant to the provisions of article 60 and article 55, paragraph l(a) and (b) of the Convention, Spain reserves the jurisdiction of its authorities to take measures directed to the protection of the property of a child which is situated on its territory, and the right not to recognise any parental responsibility or measure in so far as it is incompatible with any measure taken by its authorities in relation to that property.

    Sweden Articles Declarations Reservations

    Articles 23, 26 and 52 of the Convention allow Contracting Parties a degree of flexibility in order to apply a simple and rapid regime for the recognition and enforcement of judgments. The Community rules provide for a system of recognition and enforcement which is at least as favourable as the rules laid down in the Convention. Accordingly, a judgment given in a Court of a Member State of the European Union, in respect of a matter relating to the Convention, shall be recognised and enforced in Sweden by application of the relevant internal rules of Community law. (Regulation (EC) No 1347/2000 plays a special role in this field since it relates to jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in matrimonial matters and in matters of parental responsibility for children of both spouses.)

    In accordance with Article 60 and Article 54, paragraph 2, of the Convention, Sweden objects to the use of French in communications sent to authorities in Sweden. 

    Switzerland Articles Reservations

    (Translation)
    Reservation under Article 55, paragraph 1, sub-paragraph b, in accordance with Article 60
    Switzerland reserves the right not to recognise any parental responsibility or measure in so far as it is incompatible with any measure taken by its authorities in relation to the property of a child situated on its territory.

    Turkey Articles Declarations Reservations

    Declarations:
    07-10-2016

    1. Turkey declares that her signing/ratification of the “Convention on jurisdiction, applicable law, recognition, enforcement and co-operation in respect of parental responsibility and measures for the protection of children” neither amounts to any form of recognition of the Greek Cypriot Administration’s pretention to represent the defunct “Republic of Cyprus” as party to the “Convention on jurisdiction, applicable law, recognition, enforcement and co-operation in respect of parental responsibility and measures for the protection of children”, nor should it imply any obligations on the part of Turkey to enter into any dealing with the so-called Republic of Cyprus within the framework of the said “Convention on jurisdiction, applicable law, recognition, enforcement and co-operation in respect of parental responsibility and measures for the protection of children”.
    “The Republic of Cyprus” was founded as a Partnership State in 1960 by Greek and Turkish Cypriots in accordance with international treaties. This partnership was destroyed by the Greek Cypriot side when it unlawfully seized the state by forcibly ejecting all Turkish Cypriot members in all the state organs in 1963. Eventually, Turkish Cypriots who were excluded from the Partnership State in 1963 have organized themselves under their territorial boundaries and exercise governmental authority, jurisdiction and sovereignity. There is no single authority which in law or in fact is competent to represent jointly the Turkish Cypriots and the Greek Cypriots and consequently Cyprus as a whole. Thus, the Greek Cypriots cannot claim authority, jurisdiction or sovereignity over the Turkish Cypriots who have equal status or over the entire Island of Cyprus.

    2. In accordance with Article 34, paragraph 2, of the Convention, the Republic of Turkey declares that requests made under paragaph 1 of Article 34 shall be communicated to its authorities only through the relevant Central Authority.

    Reservations:
    07-10-2016

    1. In accordance with Article 54, paragraph 2, of the Convention, the Republic of Turkey objects to the use of French by making reservation.

    2. With reference to Article 60 and in accordance with Article 55, paragraph 1, of the Convention, the Republic of Turkey reserves:
    a) the jurisdiction of its authorities to take measures directed to the protection of property of a child situated on its territory;
    b) the right not to recognize any parental responsibility or measure in so far as it is incompatible with any measure taken by its authorities in relation to that property.

    Ukraine Articles Declarations Reservations

    In accordance with Article 34, paragraph 2, of the Convention Ukraine declares that the requests for the purposes of paragraph 1 of this Article shall be sent to Ukraine only through its Central Authority.

    In accordance with Article 44 of the Convention Ukraine declares that the requests according to Articles 8, 9 and 33 of the Convention shall be sent to the Central Authority of Ukraine.

    In accordance with Articles 55 and 60 of the Convention Ukraine declares that it:

    a) keeps the jurisdiction of its competent authorities to take measures directed towards the protection of a child's immovable property located in its territory;

    b) reserves the right not to recognise any parental responsibility as well as measures if they are incompatible with the measure used by its competent authorities in respect of a child's immovable property located in its territory.

    16 October 2015
    In February 2014 the Russian Federation launched armed aggression against Ukraine and occupied a part of the territory of Ukraine – the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol, and today exercises effective control over certain districts of the Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts of Ukraine. These actions are in gross violation of the Charter of the United Nations and constitute a threat to international peace and security. The Russian Federation, as the Aggressor State and Occupying Power, bears full responsibility for its actions and their consequences under international law.
    The United Nations General Assembly Resolution A/RES/68/262 of 27 March 2014 confirmed the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine within its internationally recognized borders. The United Nations also called upon all States, international organizations and specialized agencies not to recognize any alteration of the status of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol.
    In this regard, Ukraine states that from 20 February 2014 and for the period of temporary occupation by the Russian Federation of a part of the territory of Ukraine - the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol – as a result of the armed aggression of the Russian Federation committed against the Ukraine and until the complete restoration of the constitutional law and order and effective control by Ukraine over such occupied territory, as well as over certain districts of the Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts of Ukraine, which are temporarily not under control of Ukraine as a result of the aggression of the Russian Federation, the application and implementation by Ukraine of the obligations under the above Conventions, as applied to the aforementioned occupied and uncontrolled territory of Ukraine, is limited and is not guaranteed.
    Documents or requests made or issued by the occupying authorities of the Russian Federation, its officials at any level in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol and by the illegal authorities in certain districts of the Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts of Ukraine, which are temporarily not under control of Ukraine, are null and void and have no legal effect regardless of whether they are presented directly or indirectly through the authorities of the Russian Federation.
    The provisions of the Conventions regarding the possibility of direct communication or interaction do not apply to the territorial organs of Ukraine in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol, as well as in certain districts of the Donetsk and Luhansk oblasts of Ukraine, which are temporarily not under control of Ukraine. The procedure of the relevant communication is determined by the central authorities of Ukraine in Kyiv.
     

    United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland Articles Declarations Reservations

    Articles 23, 26 and 52 of the Convention allow Contracting Parties a degree of flexibility in order to apply a simple and rapid regime for the recognition and enforcement of judgments. The Community rules provide for a system of recognition and enforcement which is at least as favourable as the rules laid down in the Convention. Accordingly, a judgment given in a Court of a Member State of the European Union, in respect of a matter relating to the Convention, shall be recognised and enforced in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland by application of the relevant internal rules of Community law.

    27 July 2012
    In accordance with Article 29, paragraph 2, of the Convention, the Government of the United Kingdom declares that it will interpret this paragraph as referring only to cases where the requesting Central Authority does not know to which applicable territorial unit their application should be addressed. In such cases the United Kingdom designates the Central Authority for England to transmit to the relevant Central Authority.
    In accordance with Article 34, paragraph 2, of the Convention, the Government of the United Kingdom declares that requests made under paragraph 1 of Article 34 shall be communicated to its authorities only through the relevant Central Authority.
    In accordance with Article 54, paragraph 2, of the Convention, the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland declares that it objects to the use of French.