About the Judgments Project
The "Judgments Project" refers to the work undertaken by the Hague Conference since 1992 on two key aspects of private international law in cross-border litigation in civil and commercial matters: the international jurisdiction of courts and the recognition and enforcement of their judgments abroad.
Initially, the Judgments Project focussed on developing a broad convention, which was subsequently scaled down to focus on international cases involving choice of court agreements. This led to the conclusion of the Hague Convention of 30 June 2005 on Choice of Court Agreements ("Choice of Court Convention"). For more information on the Choice of Court Convention, see the Choice of Court Homepage.
In 2011, the Council on General Affairs and Policy agreed that an Experts' Group should be established to assess the possible merits of resuming the Judgments Project.
In 2012, the Council agreed that work on the Judgments Project should proceed. The Council established a Working Group to prepare proposals on the recognition and enforcement of judgments, including jurisdictional filters, and requested the Experts' Group to further study and discuss the desirability and feasibility of making provisions in relation to jurisdiction.
In each of the years 2013-2015 (inclusive), the Council noted the useful progress made by the Working Group and invited the Working Group to continue its work.
In 2016, the Council on General Affairs and Policy welcomed the completion by the Working Group on the Judgments Project of a Proposed Draft Text, and decided to set up a Special Commission to prepare a draft Convention. The Council also endorsed the recommendation of the Working Group that matters relating to direct jurisdiction (including exorbitant grounds and lis pendens / declining jurisdiction) should be put for consideration to the Experts’ Group of the Judgments Project soon after the Special Commission has drawn up a draft Convention. The first meeting of the Special Commission took place from 1 to 9 June 2016 and produced the 2016 preliminary draft Convention.
In 2017, the Second Meeting of the Special Commission took place from 16 to 24 February 2017 and produced the February 2017 draft Convention. In March 2017, the Council on General Affairs and Policy welcomed the very good progress made on this Project, which was confirmed as a priority for the Organisation, and decided that a third meeting of the Special Commission be held. The Council endorsed the recommendation of the Special Commission that, in preparation for the next meeting, further intersessional work on certain issues was necessary.
The Third Meeting of the Special Commission took place from 13 to 17 November 2017 and produced the November 2017 draft Convention. The Special Commission will recommend to the Council at its March 2018 meeting that it have a further meeting in mid-2018, and that a Diplomatic Session be convened in mid-2019.
In 2018, the Council on General Affairs and Policy welcomed the very good progress of this Project and mandated the Permanent bureau to continue preparations for a Fourth and final Meeting of the Special Commission in May 2018. The Permanent Bureau was also mandated to make arrangements for the preparation of a Diplomatic Session in mid-2019 and for a further meeting of the Experts’ Group addressing matters relating to direct jurisdiction, shortly after the conclusion of the Diplomatic Session.
The Fourth and final Meeting of the Special Commission took place from 24 to 29 May 2018 and produced the 2018 draft Convention. The Special Commission considered that it has completed the mandate conferred on it by the Council and that, as contemplated by the Council, work on the draft Convention has reached the point where a Diplomatic Session can be convened in mid-2019.
Chronology of the Judgments Project (including relevant documentation)
- Special Commission
- Continuation of the Judgments Project (2010-2015)
- Focus on international litigation involving choice of court agreements (2002-2003)
- Response to the preliminary draft Convention (2000-2001)
- Preparation of a preliminary draft Convention (1997-1999)
- Preliminary work (1992-1996)
- The originating proposal (1992)
News & events
- Panel on the HCCH Judgments project held by the Conflict of Laws Interest Groups Section of the American Association of Law Schools, New Orleans, United States of America (4 January 2019)
- Seminar at the 20th Congress of the International Academy of Comparative Law, Fukuoka, Japan (24 July 2018)
- CCBE Position Paper on the Judgments Project concerning jurisdiction and the recognition and enforcement of judgments in civil and commercial matters (No 2), (18 March 2016); see also: CCBE Position Paper No 1
- Third Meeting of the ILA Committee on the Protection of Privacy in Private International and Procedural Law, Luxembourg (18-19 January 2016)
- Conference “The HCCH in 2015: an overview”, Tokyo (21 December 2015)
- Conference "International Symposium hosted by the Doshisha University Research Center for International Transactions and Law", Kyoto (19 December 2015)
- Conference "Cross-border Enforcement of Judgments - An Australian, UK and Global Perspective", London, (16 November 2015)
- Conference "Jurisdiction & Dispute Resolution in the Internet Era: Governance and Good Practices", Geneva (17-18 June 2015)
- 22nd International Congress of Judicial Officers and round table: "Harmonising Legislation – The Need for Fair Principles for Enforcement: the Global Code of Enforcement", Madrid (2-5 June 2015)
- 5th Meeting of the ILA Committee on Intellectual Property and Private International Law and ILA-WIPO seminar on "Intellectual Property and Private International Law", Geneva (15-16 January 2015)
- HCCH Asia Pacific Week, Hong Kong (6-11 October 2014)
- Conference "Cross-Border Recognition and Enforcement of Judgments", St Petersburg, Russian Federation (17 June 2014)
- Conference, “International Litigation in the Asia Pacific Region”, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China (23-24 September 2013)
- “5th Conference of the Journal of Private International Law”, Madrid, Spain (12-13 September 2013)
- The Dutch-Russian Seminar on Legal Co-operation "Better Justice, Better Business", The Hague, Netherlands (6 March 2013)
- International Conference "Fostering Co-operation through Hague Conventions", Tbilisi, Georgia (26-28 February 2013)
A bibliography relating to the Judgments Project is available here.